The Reporter And His Burden – An Insider Report

A reporter is one engaged in the work of gathering information about significant events, writing, editing, publishing, or broadcasting them through a medium. Most of the attributes of a successful or good reporter are acquired not inherited. Most reporters hold a bachelor’s degree in journalism. Those that cover particular subject-matter, stories such as finance or political science may have an educational background in related fields. The best qualifications for a reporter apart from the desire and ability to write are insatiable curiosity, a flexible and social personality, a nature that relishes variety of experience, a temperament to work under the pressure of deadlines (time-bound pressures), and a tolerance that permits objective observations of people and events.

A good reporter also needs ambition, drive, determination and very importantly, self-discipline. One who lacks a strong love for, and a broad knowledge of the English Language is foolhardy to consider a career as a reporter. A reporter must have the desire to express himself in words; and urge to put words on paper as this is part of his nature. Beyond this desire, the successful reporter must have an aggressive inquiring mind lest he will be of little benefit to his medium. In view of the demands occasioned by the changing trends in technology, politics, science, foreign (international) relations, economics, and other fields, education is very important for a reporter. He needs to have deep-rooted knowledge on these issues through formal and journalistic training.

The functions of a reporter cover so many areas of people’s lives. Part of his functions is to report on local news events such as municipal board meetings, business news, and newsworthy happenings that affect the community. Other duties include gathering information and writing articles in a timely fashion for semi-weekly newspapers. Equipped with instincts, experience, a good memory, a sharp eye, careful attention to surrounding details, a skeptical sense of the way things work, and a great regard for the public, a reporter in displaying his skills, exercises his senses of sight, sound, touch, feel and smell, at the spur of the moment.

In any court, there is always a person who is most unobtrusive but in real life for the functioning of the court is the court reporter, who generally does the routine outdoor work of the judge. There will be a few people unable to attend the court for recording their statements. The court reporter is assigned the job of visiting such people and records their statements. Traveling is routine in a reporter’s work. When a reporter visits a site on the court’s orders, he takes the responsibility of documenting the happenings there and presents them to the court for whatever action that may be necessary. The court reporter is expected to do all the tasks which are normally done by a personal aid. This includes filtering of all communications within the court and outside it.

In sports, a reporter is also needed. Since there is intense public interest in sports, it is important for a reporter to know something about sports as part of his job. He is to know the basic facts and the important people in the popular games and sports in his area and the world in general. This is because reporters are needed in recording sporting events, interview players and coaches, and gather statistical data on local, national, and international sporting events. This information is used to prepare stories for television, radio, newspapers, and other sources. Most sports reporters cover specific team, event or geographic area.

Reporters, in general, cover news stories that help to inform the public. Political stories, natural disasters, community events, business transactions, and international events are typical of the type of stories covered by reporters. Reporters obtain information in variety of ways. They track down leads, research documents, observe events as they happen, and interview people. In addition to taking down notes, reporters also document events through photographs and video.

There are so many challenges that confront the reporter on daily basis in the course of doing his job. Apart from interpreting situations based on his depth of experience and exposure to varying situations which may occur and re-occur in the course of routine assignments, a reporter is required to be adequately familiar with the structural language of his beat, that is, the place of his (regular) assignment. Most reporters start their careers at small, local news organizations where they gain experience. With experience, a reporter can be given assignments that are more difficult and glamorous.

Gathering information for a story can be quite difficult for a reporter. For example, a reporter can be confronted with people that are unwilling to disclose information related to a story. When called to the location of a story, a reporter may experience distractions related to weather and crowds. Back in the office, a reporter must deal with the pressure of meeting deadlines. This aspect of his work is often carried out in a busy and noisy newsroom. He may also work for longer hours in order to maintain irregular schedules.

It is however, the duty of a reporter to always present information that is accurate and reliable. This information may be statistical in nature. For example, a reporter gathers statistics that are related to sporting events, economic events, and public opinion. The accuracy of this information often relies upon mathematical calculations. Sports reporter can be expected to master analysis of the statistics related to the sporting event that he is covering.

However, the responsibility of a reporter is usually defined in terms of the country’s political and social aspirations. In addition to being set by social and ethical norms, the responsibility of a reporter is determined by professional autonomy and independence.

As a general rule, the reporter’s freedom is restricted by his responsibility vis-à-vis public order, moral standards, safety of the state and its institutions. Restrictions are often formulated in terms of national ideology. The constitution of a country usually provides the broad framework within which principles guiding professional journalistic activity are defined.

Civil laws usually prescribe rules the reporter must follow in relation to his audience, for example, privacy, slander, and so on. In some countries, reporters (journalists) themselves have adopted professional codes of conduct. Many of these codes of conduct have certain ethical principles in common. These include the right of secrecy (the respect for the private lives of all citizens), accuracy, impartiality, balance, good taste, etc.

Also self-censorship describes the action of the reporter in staying clear of incurring institutional retribution or punishment. While much of this fear is rooted in political and social sensitivity, it is also true that a great deal of it is imagined. It is therefore incumbent on the reporter to know his national parameters, the various civil laws, and social norms which may restrict his profession in the public service.

In conclusion, given the fact that the reporter is exposed to danger in the course of doing his work, and no law will excuse him when he crosses his limits, it is very important to know that if he is free and responsible, and believed to be both, he will forever enjoy the respect and confidence of people, and earn credibility in their eyes. When a reporter is accurate, balanced, and clear in his message, the audience will believe it. And so, apart from the challenges that confront him on daily basis, a reporter who does what suits his work by learning to write well, facing the crowd with confidence, speaking well, and dominating in every situation of public interest where he is assigned, to enhance his performance is bound to win public interest, respect and promotion at work.

As the link, between and the Newspaper, Radio, and Television stations, a reporter is responsible to the News editor, who on daily basis at the editorial conference, briefs other senior editors about stories received or expected from the reporters. A reporter is also the heart of any media organization; he is the most important person in all media organizations such that it is what he brings from the field that the media house publishes to the public, in other words, a reporter is a trained and qualified person, whose work is engaged in the act of information gathering. As his duty suggests, the reporter is under obligation to appear modest and well dressed at any given time or function. Though, there is no hard rule as to the type of dress a reporter can put on to an assignment, yet his mode of dressing must be something to be proud of.

In most cases, it is acceptable for a reporter to dress in the manner of his beat, for instance, it is acceptable for a sports reporter to dress sportsmanly when carrying sporting assignments. More importantly, it is not advisable that a reporter should dress like a soldier while reporting from a war front, so as to avoid being killed.

The work of a reporter is such an important one such that without him, there would be no news, since no occurrence is yet news until it has been given account of, by a reporter.

Diversity in Lesson Plans Using Technology

Why Save The Trees?

Grades 6-9 SOL OBJECTIVES: LA 6.1,6.2,6.3d,6.5,6.6 MA 6.18,6.20,6.7,6.8,6.9

SCI 6.9, 6.1 a-k, 6.2d SS USII.5 a-d, USII.7, USII.8

Purpose

To understand that trees are a valuable natural resource, and without their survival, technology and life as we know it can change drastically.

Context

Until the fifth grade, most students understand that trees are a natural resource and that they supply us with everything from paper to the homes which we live. Transferring the concept on a higher level thinking realm is one of the most difficult challenges we face teaching, and the most difficult concept children face learning. If you were to do a K-W-L with students in the younger years, all trees are the same, and there is no concept of how it is pureed into mash for paper, cut into lumber to build yet alone used for energy.
By the time they get to 5th grade student interest increases and it becomes harder to find a method to
keep their interest. For kids, finding out that there are over 20,000 types of trees, pulls in their attention. For the teacher it gives plenty of room to expand and direct the curriculum and instruction to higher level thinking skills and knowledge.

This lesson introduces the history of trees, not just the type of trees. It discusses why they must be saved in order to keep benefit humans, animals and our Earth. Students will learn by about the history of plants and that they have been around on the earth longer then any other organism. This lesson will focus on the past use of our natural resource and the options we have in saving trees to continue providing some of the groundwork for the things we need to survive in the next century.

Students will be introduced to the “Tree Doctor” and learn what they can do to help save the trees. The will also be made aware of occupations that are focused in the area of forestry.

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Planning Ahead

Materials

1 Black and white notebook (or similar) to keep your research and data

Your Online Web quest Sheet – QUESTO

Computers- bookmarked portal or pages

Printed information in case the electricity goes out and computers don’t work.

Websites can be downloaded to a CD in case the internet is down, you can work off line

Worksheets-graphic organizers

VCR/DVD players, video and computer projectors

Software- Inspiration, National Geographic, WINDOWS on Science

Motivation

In the morning have small saplings around the room and the lab set for experiment.
Show United Streaming Video -The Biggest and Oldest Living Things. Found on unitedstreaming.com

o An Introduction to Trees

o Learning About The Past

o Appreciating Trees

Have students preview their QUESTO sheet. This sheet will direct them to websites and activities that will help them transfer what they know, what they need to learn and how they can compile data to determine what they can do.

By using the computer lab and a main computer, show the students a tabbed version of the websites they will visit today. Leave a tile version on the screen so that navigating will be easier.

This web quest is intended to lead students to understand that our natural resources are more and more limited. That the tree has been around longer than any other organism and in our life time we may see it become extinct. Students will also be motivated to support the things we need to do to save the trees for a better future.

Development

Discussion:Where do trees get the nutrients they need to grow?

What do trees release into the atmosphere that humans need?

What do we know about tree growth and age?

Objectives

o Students will understand how humans, animals, and the earth benefit from trees

o Students will learn about the history of the oldest living thing, and their future

o Students will work through team activities and web quest online and learn how to look for specific information.

Ask students to tell you how we benefit from trees.

Have the students look through the QUESTO and ask individual teams to connect the information from what they think the articles will be about with something they have learned before.

As a class, between web pages, brainstorm things that will help keep healthier plants.
Have poster paper up to create a mapping of ideas.
Have a poster board for words and definitions students may request information about.

The following web pages are used in the web quest:

Found at dsc.discovery.com- The age and size of trees around the world
This article will reveal the of age and size of trees around the world.

Found at dsc.discovery.com/news – Types of organisms can kill trees
This article will give students a sense of what types of organisms can kill trees.

On the freenetwork.umn.edu/kids/ site you will find activities and information.

United Streaming Video online -Trees: The Biggest and Oldest Living Things

Found at domtar.com/ARBRE/english/
The Tree World. This site will provide a ton of activities. Students can use the dictionary to identify vocabulary words. Play games and take quizzes, this site also includes experiments. Crossword puzzle-uses for trees. How to protect trees.

Wesavetrees.com website has a great article called:What Can We Do to Save Trees?

Found at epa.gov/epaoswer/osw/kids/pdfs/k-3.pdf
Excellent site for extended activities

Lab Project: Create a terrarium to grow and take home.

Assessment

Students will present their data in their notebooks.

Students will be able to discuss the objective of the lesson and finish the K-W-L sheet

Students will make a terrarium and experiment with different soils/ document data.

Students will complete a final project of their choice for a graded assignment using at least three software applications WORD, PUBLISHER, DIGITAL, VIDEO EQUIPMENT, POWER POINT, INSPIRATION SOFTWARE, NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINES OR WINDOWS ON SCIENCE
At the end of the week a Q&A sheet on Save the Water will be passed out and will ask similar questions

Where does it come from?

How much did we have?

What do we have now, why less?

What is water used for?

What will happen without it?

What can we do to save it?

Students may use any resources to complete the sheet.

There is a saying: “Ancestors plant trees so that their offspring can have shade.”

Extensions

Language: The Lorax by Dr. Seuss

Math: Measure the age of a tree by it’s rings

Science: Visit a paper mill or newspaper plant

Social Science: Join and environmental club

USING THE NEWSPAPER- Current articles/events about trees

Additional Resources

The Wonderful World of Trees on the freenetwork.umn.edu/kids/ website

The National Arbor Day Foundation: Benefits of Trees at arborday.org

USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory found at fpl.fs.fed.us/tmu website

Products Made From Wood found at uky.edu/Agriculture/Forestry/conners/WoodUses.pdf website

American Forest & Paper Association: Pulp & Paper, Fun Facts
afandpa.org/Content/NavigationMenu/Pulp_and_Paper/Fun_Facts/Fun_Facts.htm

How Trees Work for Us at borealforest.org/school/trees.htm
The History of Maple Syrup in America :members.iquest.net/~childers/maple/hist.html
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Vocabulary

Adaptation

Adjustment to environmental conditions. Young people adapt well to change. The black spruce is well adapted to Quebec’s cold climate

Biological control

The use of natural predators and parasites to reduce the populations of insects that ravage forests. The use of natural agents, such as fungi, bacteria, or viruses, to control or fight against undesirable species.

Bush

Dense shrubs and stands of small trees of normally unmerchantable species.

Compost (noun)

A mixture of organic matter used as fertilizer. An increasing number of people are making compost at home to fertilize their gardens.

Cut with soil and regeneration protection

Harvesting carried out taking specific measures to prevent damage to young trees and to the soil.

Domestic waste

The waste or garbage produced by the members of a family and which would be thrown out.

Ecosystem

A system formed by the interaction of a community of animals and plants with its environment.

Forest ecology

The study of forests and their ecology, including the application of soil science, botany, zoology, and the like to forestry.

Hardwood

A tree whose leaves drop in the fall, as opposed to evergreens or conifers, which have needles (fir, spruce) or scales (cedar). The maple, lilac, and oak are examples of hardwood trees

Insecticide

A substance that destroys insects.

Mulch

A layer of straw, bark, or other plant matter used to conserve moisture in the soil, to protect certain fruits from rotting through contact with the soil, and to inhibit the growth of other plants, such as weeds.

Pesticide

A substance used to fight against harmful animals or plants.

Regeneration

The renewal of a forest. Trees begin to grow again.

Selection method

A method of regenerating a forest stand and maintaining an uneven-aged structure by removing some trees in all size classes either singly or in small groups or strips. The selection method is carried out in sugarbushes

Tree breeding

The application of genetic principles to the improvement of trees, such as to solve a specific problem or in order to obtain a given product.

Virus

An ultramicroscopic infectious (capable of infecting with disease) agent.

Is Climate “Science” Being Corrupted? Only the “Pro” Side Gets Publicized, Funded, & Peer-Reviewed

Self-abnegations, mea culpas – so guilty are we of destroying our planet (collectively, of course – not the proclaimer personally) – that we must all save the environment, the forests, the rivers, all endangered species. How wonderful it feels to make such admissions: Obama’s speech at Copenhagen; heavy reparations promised to 3rd world countries for despoiling our common planet; his Cap-and-Trade bill; his EPA restrictions and penalties (someone else paying the penalties of course – the “wealthy, primarily U.S. citizens). Never in the history of civilization has there been such an (almost) unanimous, universal, single-minded belief – by all the most literate, educated and leaders of human-kind: Global Warming, Climate Change, man-made pollution, carbon dioxide emissions – completely believed by the United Nation’s Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change, by the Nobel Prize Committee Awards Panel, and by the editors and followers of all main-stream media and scientific journals!

Swept under the rug and forgotten – completely – are the scientific scandals of yesteryear: the admissions of “cooked” temperature and climate data; of the faked famous “hockey stick” chart with its global warming upslope; the firings and resignations (in disgrace) of UN “scientist” leaders of the UN’s climate-change programs. During fall and winter 2009, when the frigid weather made a mockery of “global warming”; when the eruption of an Iceland volcano with it’s prolonged spewing of ash into the atmosphere and over Europe cancelled out a continent’s commercial flights for weeks – but also cancelled out a decade of mankind’s conscience-stricken efforts to “green” the planet – none-to-few were any news media comments on climate. However, with April 2010 having warm temperatures (somewhere on the planet), quickly were found stories about how Al Gore’s belief in global warming was being proven.

The question about man-made climate change is legitimate and worth-while, however, the more meaningful question is whether the assessment by the scientific community is fair, honest, “scientific” and trust-worthy? Is humankind, with its unquenchable appetite for fossil-fuel energy (for homes, industry and travel) truly damaging the environment of planet Earth? On the one hand, it is a feasible concern – civilization, with huge amounts of fossil-fuel emissions, does cause obvious pollutants; on the other hand, our planet is huge, nature is both complex and dominant, and the power of the sun is undeniable – plus, not to be overlooked, are also earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The bottom line is: can one trust the climate scientists when the flow of research grants, monetary awards, financial well-being, professional career enhancement and approbation is so readily available from only the one side of the issue (and supported by the entire civilized and political world) – while the other side offers only negatives, no funded research programs, and black-ballings from peer-revue journals?

With the above unbalanced situation so clearly obvious, how can the public trust the conventional conclusion of man-caused climate change? Raising the issue of “corrupted” science through one-sided assessment and publication, there have been some dissident voices raised, trying to make themselves heard over the roar of the multitude (people and governments). These are calm, quiet voices, explaining that climate-change is not the irrefutable (solidly provable) “science” of Sir Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion – climatology factors are very complex, and “science” is not “true” if the “pro” view gets broad funding and publishing support – and focuses only those items which support its theory while omitting those that do not; while the “anti” view gets neither funding nor publishing availability. These calm voices do not proclaim for an opposing viewpoint (that mankind does “not” pollute) – only that the data and evidence are insufficient for the political conclusion that has been made.

Thus, 31,072 Americans with academic degrees in science, a few years ago signed a petition which flatly denied the proclaimed wisdom that humanity-caused-global-warming was settled scientific fact. Sponsored by eminent scientists, such as Dr. Arthur Robinson of the Oregon Institute of Science and Medicine, the petition called upon the US to reject such a position. This was at the same time that Al Gore (and the UN’s IPCC) was receiving a Nobel Prize for his film on Global Warming – and demeaning his critics as “a tiny, tiny minority – like those who believe the moon landing was staged in a movie lot, and that the world is flat”. Other outspoken scientist-challengers to the conventional wisdom are: Dr. Richard S. Lindzen, Ph.D., Professor of Atmospheric Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Dr. B. Lomborg, Director of the Copenhagen Consensus Center; Dr. Parrick Michaels, at the Cato Institute; Dr. Philip Lloyd, Honorary Research Fellow at the Energy Research Center at the University of Cape Town in South Africa.

The issue here is not just academic and scientific honesty – the financial well-being of the United States and the world is at stake. The restrictions, constrictions and monetary penalties of the contemplated Cap-and-Trade bill (already passed in the Democratically-controlled House of Representatives) and Obama’s EPA (Environmental Protection Agency), and the reparations promised by President Obama at Copenhagen (to 3rd world countries) by the U.S. and other 1st world countries can raise havoc upon the financial well-being of the United States as well as the entire civilized world.

Tackling Stress And Anxiety In Today’s Fast Moving World

In today’s fast moving world stress lies in wait around every corner as an ever present danger. Instant news flashed around the world, just-in-time manufacturing, computers and modern technology in general all produce great benefits for society but also quicken the pace of life considerably and seem to leave us with more and more to do and less and less time in which to do it.

Now nobody is going to slow down the world, not that we would necessarily want them to do so, and so, faced with the ever present danger of stress in this fast-moving environment, we must take the technology that has produced it and use this to our advantage.

Along with the numerous challenges of the modern world come a variety of new tools to deal with them. Computers for example can create more work in a shorter time, but they can also allow us to get a great deal more done with less effort. They are also a superb tool for communication and enable us to form friendships with people of similar interests across the world, which would have been quite impossible only a few years ago. This simple ability is an example of one thing that we can do to help keep stress at bay, namely to broaden our interests outside of our family and work and pursue hobbies and interests with a wider circle of friends.

Although still in its infancy, the science of psychology is also helping us increasingly in dealing with stress. Studies into such things as neurobiology, nutrition and a host of other things are beginning to produce useful treatments for stress.

One of the most effective tools today for combating stress is a combination of proper exercise and diet and modern technology has allowed for considerable scientific study of both.

There is certainly no shortage of potential stressors in our modern world and this fact is demonstrated nightly as we watch the television news and see a world that is apparently coming apart at the seams. And yet the vast majority of us seem to manage to cope pretty well. Perhaps there is more to life than the television and newspapers would have us believe.

Dealing with difficult problems is, quite frankly, difficult, but such problems do not necessarily have to lead to stress. If we simply take the tools of modern technology and use them to our own advantage to solve our problems, rather than to simply ruin our lives, then there is no reason at all why we should not be able to keep stress in its place – lurking around the corner.

I’m a Global Warming Skeptic (And You Should Be Too!)

I live in a wonderful suburban community on Long Island. My three children attend the excellent public schools in our district. As the two oldest children have made their way through middle school, though, I’ve been bothered by the rather flimsy instruction they’ve received on the subject of “global warming.” Despite widespread divergence among scientists and reports of questionable scholarship in landmark global warming studies, my children (and, presumably, their classmates and millions of other young students) have been taught a standard, one-sided view of “global warming.” Both my 14 year-old daughter and 11 year-old son have been shown Al Gore’s movie An Inconvenient Truth in sixth grade, but have been given nothing to suggest that some of the information in the movie is either controversial or misleading. So I’ve decided to put together this bullet point compendium of information discussing the current status of the “global warming” debate.

The History

1. Global warming is when near surface and water temperatures on earth rise. Scientists believe there are many factors involved in the earth’s temperature changes, many of which are natural and have little or nothing to do with human activity (e.g. atmospheric processes like clouds and precipitation systems, the variability associated with phenomena like El Nino and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation). But an approximately 1 degree Fahrenheit increase in average temperatures over the last 100 years has put the focus of scientists and funding agencies on “greenhouse gases” (carbon dioxide, water vapor, nitrous oxide, and methane), some of which are emitted by humans. These gases can trap heat and light from the sun in the earth’s atmosphere, which increases the temperature.

2. The claim that the earth is warming, that the warming is due to man’s emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), and that continued emissions will lead to catastrophe gained major media attention during the hearings of then-U.S. Senator Al Gore’s Committee on Science, Technology and Space in 1988. At those hearings Director of the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies James Hansen claimed with” 99 percent certainty” that temperatures were rising due to a human-influenced “greenhouse effect.”

3. The same year as the Gore hearings, the United Nations established the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) to assess “the scientific, technical and socioeconomic information relevant for the understanding of the risk of human-induced climate change.” The IPCC prepared four reports and a Summary for Policymakers. The last report was completed in 2007. Together, the reports contained the following conclusions:

• Global warming is occurring. Global surface temperature increased between.32 and 1.33 degrees Fahrenheit during the 20th century.

• “Anthropogenic [man made] climate change will persist for many centuries.”

• The full range of projected temperature increase is between 2 to 11.5 degrees Fahrenheit by the end of the 21stcentury.

• The increase in global temperatures are a result of human activities, primarily the burning of fossil fuels (Coal, oil, natural gas) for energy.

• Given current trends, temperature extremes, heat waves, and heavy precipitation events will continue to escalate in frequency; and the earth’s temperature and seas will continue to rise into the next millennium.

4. The IPCC’s Summary for Policymakers (first issued in 1999) featured a graph displaying an unprecedented surge in 20th-century temperatures that looked like a hockey stick lying on the floor with its blade pointed up. Prior centuries’ temperatures appear flat, with a severe spike in the 20th-century.

5. Rajendra Pachauri, chairman of the IPCC, shared the 2007 Nobel Peace Prize with Al Gore, whose 2006 movie, An Inconvenient Truth, relied on the findings of the IPCC. Gore’s film won the 2007 Academy Awards for Best Documentary Feature and Best Original Song.

6. The IPCC identified the burning of coal, oil and natural gas as the primary culprits in rising man-made carbon emissions over the past 150 years, dating back to roughly the start of the industrial revolution. Policy proposals to reduce carbon dioxide emissions contained in such efforts as the Kyoto protocols, the Copenhagen Climate Conference (2009), and in “cap and trade” schemes, massively restructure economic systems and expand government’s ability to regulate and control energy usage.

The Controversy

1. In mid-November of 2009 there appeared a file on the internet containing thousands of emails and other documents from the Climatic Research Unit at the University of East Anglia in Great Britain (CRU). The CRU supplied many of the authors for the IPCC reports. The file was quickly authenticated and provided unambiguous evidence that the CRU and associated research scientists throughout the world engaged in the unethical suppression of information and opposing viewpoints, data manipulation, and collusion. This event has become known as “climategate.”

2. Climategate has mushroomed into a crisis affecting an entire scientific discipline. At the heart of this crisis is the “hockey stick” graph produced by Dr. Michael Mann of Penn State University, a co-conspirator in the leaked emails. After being given data by another scientist showing a mid-to-late 20th century decline in temperatures, Mann responded in a September 22, 1999 email to the CRU, that it was a “problem and a potential distraction/detraction.” So Mann deleted the embarrassing post-1960 portion of the data. The CRU’s director Phil Jones applauded Mann’s deceptions in an e-mail in which he crowed over “Mike’s Nature trick,” which also included a “method” of flat lining the medieval “warming period.”

3. An independent study by a team of mathematicians was requested by the U.S. congress and headed by Dr. Edward J. Wegman. The Wegman study thoroughly discredited the Mann “hockey stick” research because of invalid use of statistical techniques and found that the conclusions by Mann could not be supported.

4. Along with the manipulated “hockey stick” graph, the British government concluded that the University of East Anglia’s Climate Research Unit violated the nation’s freedom of information act by withholding information requested by other, presumably critical, scientists.

5. In 2010, Graham Cogley, a professor of geography and glaciers at Trent University in Peterborough, Canada, brought to the world’s attention the IPPC claim that warming will cause the Himalayan glaciers to disappear by 2035. It turned out that that claim was based solely on a pamphlet published by the World Wildlife Federation, not on any objective data. 6. Similarly, the Times of London reported that a claim that warming could endanger “up to 40 percent” of the Amazon rainforest came from an anti-smoking activist and had no scientific basis.

7. In a report to the United Nations in 2010, more than 1,000 dissenting scientists challenged man-made global warming claims made by the IPCC and former Vice President Al Gore. This 320-page Climate Depot Special Report was updated from 2007′s U.S. Senate Report of over 400 scientists who voiced skepticism about the so-called global warming “consensus.”

8. The InterAcademy Council, a consortium of national scientific academies, scolded the U.N.’s IPCC for downplaying uncertainties about global warming, failing to point out when its claims were based on weak evidence and misrepresenting some findings as peer-reviewed by scientists, when they weren’t.

9. An independent group of scientists called the Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change, issued a report called Climate Change Reconsidered, which said the IPCC reports are “marred by errors and misstatements, ignores scientific data that were available but were inconsistent with the authors’ pre-conceived conclusions, and has already been contradicted in important parts by research published since May 2006.”

Scientific Data That Challenges the Global Warming Narrative

1. CO2 is a benign gas essential to life, occurring in past eras at five times present levels. Changes in atmospheric CO2 do not correlate with human emissions of CO2, the latter being entirely trivial in the global balance. Oceans are the primary contributors of CO2 in the atmosphere.

2. According to Larry Bell, a professor at the University of Houston and the author of Climate of Corruption: Politics and Power Behind the Global Warming Hoax, the abnormally high temperatures experienced on earth in the last century has been going on for 15,000 to 18,000 years, a life-friendly period known as an interglacial cycle, long before man-made inventions of agriculture, smokestacks, and SUVs.

3. Prof. Bell explains that temperatures are probably about the same today as during a “Roman Warm Period” slightly more than 2,000 years ago, and much warmer than the “Dark Ages” that followed. They are cooler than the “Medieval Warm Period” about 1,000 years ago when Eric the Red and his Icelandic Viking tribe settled on grasslands of Greenland’s southwestern coast, and much warmer than about 400 years ago when the Northern Hemisphere plunged into depths of a “Little Ice Age.”

4. According to Robert B. Laughlin, co-winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Physics: climate change over geologic time is something the earth has done “on its own without asking anyone’s permission or explaining itself.” Glacial episodes have occurred “at regular intervals of 100,000 years,” always “a slow, steady cooling followed by abrupt warming back to conditions similar to today’s.”

5. The past century witnessed two distinct warming periods, one occurred from 1900-1945, and another from 1975-1998. About half of that total warming occurred before the mid-1940s. Records from land stations and ships indicate that the global mean surface temperature warmed by about 0.9 Fahrenheit since 1880. These records indicate a near level trend in temperatures from 1880 to about 1910, a rise to 1945, a slight decline to about 1975, and a rise to 1998.

6. While CO2 levels have continued to rise, there hasn’t been statistically significant warming since 1998.

7. According to a startling admission by Professor Phil Jones of the infamous Climate Research Unit at the University of East Anglia (a primary author of the IPCC “Summary for Policymakers”) there has been no significant warming since 1995.

8. Recent data from many monitors including the CRU, available on http://www.climate4you.com, show that the average temperature of the atmosphere and the oceans near the surface of the earth has decreased significantly over the past eight years or so.

9. Warmer weather typically precedes increases in CO2 levels, not the other way around. What rise in global temperature there has been started approximately 150 years ago, but man-made CO2 emissions did not start to grow visibly before the 1940s. In other words, the warmer weather came before the increase in CO2 levels. This is because oceans are huge CO2 sinks, absorbing CO2 as they cool, and releasing CO2 as they warm up. (Prof. Larry Bell uses the analogy of a soda can to explain this phenomena. When you open a cold can of soda it retains CO2. If it is warm, it releases CO2 and sprays all over.) These temperature shifts are heavily influenced by entirely natural ocean cycle fluctuations that affect heat transfer patterns from the tropics.

10. Short- and long-term solar fluctuations have important influences too. Decadal and longer changes in sunspot activity impacting warming and cooling cloud cover patterns are now being recognized as an important factor in global temperatures.

11. The idea that the world’s glaciers are disappearing because of CO2, a primary claim made in Al Gore’s An Inconvenient Truth, defies credibility. Most glaciers in temperate climates are relics of the ice age and have been receding since that time. Nevertheless, a large number of glaciers are growing, none of which were shown in An Inconvenient Truth. Only a small percentage of glaciers have been studied for mass balance changes out of the 67,000 that have been inventoried.

12. A healthy skepticism of scientific theories that seem to require sweeping public policy reforms is warranted. One need not be a cynic to understand the incentives operating upon the scientific community and the media. Piles of grant money and recognition outside their sometimes narrow fields of specialization await the researcher who identifies a real crisis requiring their high level of expertise. For the media the attraction to news that is alarming and that may cause panic, or even hysteria, is obvious: it raises interest in the news and thus increases revenue. History shows several occasions in which scientists and the media seemed eager to speculate falsely about the earth’s future.

• An October 7, 1912 Los Angeles Times feature proclaimed the “Fifth Ice Age is on the Way: Human Race Will Have to Fight for Existence in Cold.”

• On August 9, 1923 the Chicago Tribune declared “Scientists Say Arctic Ice Will Wipe out Canada.”

• A March 1, 1975 cover of Science News magazine depicted New York City being swallowed by a glacier. The New York Times followed with a headline story “Scientists Ponder Why World’s Climate is Changing: A Major Cooling Widely Considered to be Inevitable.”

• In April 1974 Time magazine featured a cover story with the title “How to Survive the Coming Ice Age: 51 Things You Can Do To Make A Difference.”

• On April 28, 1975, Newsweek magazine published an article entitled “Scientists Predict Massive Global Cooling.” It featured the following statement: “The evidence in support of these predictions has now begun to accumulate so massively that meteorologists are hard-pressed to keep up with it.”

13. Professor Bell and others believe that humans tend to thrive in warmer climates. “A warming planet is not necessarily bad. It enables humans and countless other creatures to thrive that couldn’t otherwise survive. It provides long and fertile planting seasons on large expanses of unfrozen land essential to feed 8 billion to 9 billion people around the world.”

14. The costs associated with efforts to reduce man-made CO2 are enormous. Bjorn Lomborg, author of The Skeptical Environmentalist, has studied the economics of climate change and estimates that the European Union’s 20 percent emissions-reduction target will cost around $250 billion a year. Yet the impact by 2100 on global temperatures is likely to be only 0.05 a degree Centigrade – almost too small to measure.